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Discover The Health Benefits of Tea

Did you know that we Brits drink a staggering 165m cups of tea between us single day and are you aware of the health benefits of tea?

Transcript of the Tea Advisory Panel Video

Well one group of people who are the Tea Advisory Panel, they’re a specialist group of Scientists, Doctors and Nutritionists, who meet regularly to talk about the health benefits of tea. Here’s a sum up of what they talked about at their last meeting….

Dr Carrie Ruxton, Independent Nutritionist, Tea Advisory Panel.
Today we’ve been looking at the anti-microbial effects of tea and what that means is that all of the bugs that we get exposed to, that cause colds and flus and infections, scientists have found that if you put these bugs into a test-tube and add tea polyphenols to them, that’s the anti-oxidant compounds of tea, you can reduce the effect of these bugs as an anti-microbial effect and this has actually been known for a very long time, as early as the early 1800s Mrs Beeton was advising that we put tea on sties and an army surgeon in the early 1900s was suggesting that soldiers have tea in their water bottles to fight against Typhoid, so a very interesting historical context.

Dr Catherine Hood, General Practitioner, Tea Advisory Panel.
What a lot of people don’t realise is that tea can have anti-bacterial properties in the mouth too. Ithas been shown that the catechins in tea which are a form of anti-oxidant found in tea can last in themouth for up to an hour after rinsing. And these particular catechins the particular type in tea are called catechin-polyphenols and they come under a group of chemicals called the flavonoids. Polyphenols are thought to work, by inhibiting bacteria in that they thicken the cell wall of the bacteria which inhibits the bacterial growth but also in vitro studies have shown that they can aid the action of antibiotics as well, so that the antibiotics will work better with those polyphenols around.

 

There was also news regarding tea and weight management so can a cuppa help you to shift a few extra pounds?

Dr Lynne Garton, Independent Nutritionist, Tea Advisory Panel.
There has been a lot of interest recently as to whether or not tea can help to lose weight, so much sothat we are seeing a lot of products that contain green tea being promoted as aiding weight loss, so I’ve been investigating the evidence as to whether or not, there’s actually any truth in this. Unfortunately there’s only been a few studies that have been published in this area and the majority of these studies have used green tea. So as Dr Hood as mentioned tea contains catechins and green tea is a particularly good source of catechins and it is thought that catechins may help to stop the absorption of sugar and fat into the body and it may help boost metabolism and they also help to stop producing fat in the body. Now when you look at the human studies there’s only a very few number of studies which have been published in this area and from these studies it does seem to suggest that green tea may be beneficial in weight loss but the effect is very small. However, when you look at black tea and when you take it without anything it doesn’t have any calories but if like the majority of us in this country have some semi-skimmed milk with it, it’s only has 13 calories per cup and when you think about this, if you were to swap a daily latte made with semi-skimmed milk for tea made with semi-skimmed milk, over the course of the year you could end up losing 8lbs in weight so whether you drink green tea or black tea, with or without semi-skimmed milk, they are both low calorie drinks that you can enjoy when you are watching your weight.

Finally the panel discussed emerging evidence that tea can help mental function in other words, concentration and alertness.

Dr Carrie Ruxton, Independent Nutritionist, Tea Advisory Panel.
We’ve also been discussing the effects of tea on cognitive function and mood and mental processing. There are two components in tea that can have effect, one is caffeine, which probably everyone knows about and that boosts alertness, mental processing but there’s also something else in tea called delphinium which is an amino acid, what that does is calm you down and improve your mood. Now they both have effects independently but when you put them together, as you find in tea, the effect is dynamite and delphinium boosts some of the effects that caffeine has. SO what you are getting in tea is an excellent combination of both of these components that can help to keep cognitive functioning going throughout the day.

Dr Tim Bond, Technical Expert, Tea Advisory Panel.
Caffeinated drinks have been unfairly demonised in the past, when you look at it, caffeine containing drinks such as tea actually deliver a lot of potent health benefits, not only do they have a moderate amount of caffeine, which we actually try and position as the right amount of caffeine for a drink butthey actually contain other health giving constituents. Black tea contains flavonoid antioxidants, now, there are actually a lot of studies out there linking flavonoid intake to decreased events like heart attacks so cardiovascular disease and also we are beginning to see evidence to show link between improved brain mental function.

It’s amazing all of the health benefits of tea and tea advisory panel have today explained just a few of these facts. Drinking tea is also associated with other health properties such as heart, stroke andcirculatory health. SO the message is clear. Make tea, preferably 4 cups a day part of your daily diet needs and enjoy some of the many benefits that tea has to offer.

Discover The Health Benefits of Green Tea

There are many health benefits that have long been associated with Green Tea, however the British Dietetic Association and NHS have been working together to gather evidence in order to confirm or deny the ‘myths´.

These include investigations into claims that Green Tea increases weight loss, reduces cholesterol, helps to combat cardiovascular disease, and even helps to prevent cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.

It is the contents of green tea which provides the drink with its nutritional benefits.

Green tea contains: Vitamin B, Folate, manganate potassium, magnesium, caffeine and antioxidants.

For thousands of years green tea has been used in traditional Chinese medicine, it is used as a remedy to treat anything from headaches to depression. The tea originates from China and is widely used as a remedy throughout Asia.

Green tea seems to have the most health benefits compared to other teas, it is said that this is down to the way it is processed. Although Green, Black tea and Oolong tea comes from the same Camellia Sinensis plant they are all produced using different methods. Fresh leaves from the plant are steamed to produce green tea, while the leaves of black tea and oolong involve fermentation. As a result of avoiding the fermentation process green tea retains the maximum amount of antioxidants and polyphenols, which are the key substances that offer health benefits.

Weight Loss

Green tea is a zero calorie drink which is often associated with weight loss, it is believed that the catechins in the tea helps to stop the body producing fat, boost metabolisms and reduce the sugar absorption in the body.

The NHS confirm that the antioxidants, catechins and caffeine in green tea helps to speed up a person’s metabolic rate. It is this that helps the body to burn more calories.

Although there is evidence that the green tea may boost your metabolism the effect of this is proven to be very small. However as most people drink green tea without milk or sugar it is considered healthy as well as being low calorie.

Cholesterol

A study in 2013 discovered that daily consumption of green and black tea helps to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. It is thought that the reason for this is because of the catechins. The NHS state that results from the trials were short term and claim that long term tests need to be done to back up these findings.

Although there is scientific evidence proving that green tea does improve certain aspects of a person’s health, there is nothing stating how much needs to be consumed in order to benefit from the positive effects.

Increased brain function

New research has confirmed that drinking five cups of tea per day may improve brain function. New Data has revealed that the caffeine found in tea may help to reduce blood flow to the brain, which can increase the way a brain functions.

Dr Catherine Hood

So it seems that green tea has more to offer than its refreshing taste, you can now relax and enjoy drinking green tea knowing it’s healthy and zero calorie.

Discover the Health Benefits of Black Tea

Did you know that we Brits drink a staggering 165million cups of tea each and every single day? Here we want to share some of the health benefits of these many cups of tea!

The Tea Advisory Panel are a specialist group of Scientists, Doctors and Nutritionists, who’s objective is to provide informed ‘advice’ about the role that tea can play as part of a healthy lifestyle. The group regularly commission studies and market research into the well-being benefits of tea and to help set the record straight on other ‘myths’ associated with tea.

The anti-microbial and anti-bacterial effects of black tea

All tea contains polyphenols (anti-oxidants) which have been shown by scientists to reduce the effects of the types of common bugs that we are exposed to which cause colds, flus and infections.
(Dr Carrie Ruxton, an Independent Nutritionist on the Tea Advisory Panel)

Whilst what a lot of people don’t realise is that black tea can have anti-bacterial properties in the mouth too. Catechins (another type of anti-oxidant found in tea) can still be found in the mouth an hour after rinsing. Further polyphenols are thought to work by inhibiting bacteria, by causing the bacterium cell wall to thicken thus inhibiting its growth. Studies have also shown that polyphenols can aid the action of antibiotics too, in that they work better with the polyphenols around. (Dr Catherine Hood, a General Practitioner on the Tea Advisory Panel)

Weight management and tea

There has been so much interest as to whether drinking tea can help you to lose weight. However there have only been a few studies that have been published in this area and the majority of these studies have used green tea as opposed to black tea. Green and black tea are a particularly good source of catechins and it is thought that catechins:

  • May help to stop the absorption of sugar and fat into the body.
  • May help to boost metabolism.
  • May help to stop producing fat in the body.

The very few studies that have been conducted in this area do seem to suggest that green tea may be beneficial in weight loss but the effect is very small.

On a more basic level, black tea without any added sugar, is calorie free. Even if you enjoy a cup of tea with semi-skimmed milk, this still only has an average of 13 calories per cup. Therefore if you were to swap your daily latte made with semi-skimmed milk for tea made with semi-skimmed milk, over the course of the year you could end up losing 8lbs in weight! Whether you prefer green tea or black tea, even with semi-skimmed milk they are both low calorie drinks that you can enjoy when you are watching your weight.
(Dr Lynne Garton, an Independent Nutritionist on the Tea Advisory Panel)

Mental function and tea

There are two components in tea that could have an effect on cognitive function, concentration and alertness;

  • Caffeine, which boosts alertness and mental processing.
  • Delphinium, an amino acid which can calm you down and improve your mood.

Both of these have effects independently but when combined it has been proven that delphinium boosts some of the effects that caffeine has, thus certainly having an effect on cognitive functioning.
(Dr Carrie Ruxton, an Independent Nutritionist on the Tea Advisory Panel)

So there you have it! Not that you needed an excuse to enjoy your tea – but by making tea a part of your daily diet could bring you some of the many health benefits that tea has to offer too!

How to make a perfect cup of tea

Ingredients: Loose-leaf Assam tea; soft water; fresh, chilled milk; white sugar.

Implements: Kettle; ceramic tea-pot; large ceramic mug; fine mesh tea strainer; teaspoon, microwave oven.

  1. Draw fresh, soft water and place in kettle and boil. Boil just the required quantity to avoid wasting time, water and power.
  2. While waiting for the water to boil place a ceramic tea pot containing a quarter of a cup of water in a microwave oven on full power for one minute.
  3. Synchronise your actions so that you have drained the water from the microwaved pot at the same time that the kettle water boils. Place one rounded teaspoon of tea per cup into the pot.
  4. Take the pot to the kettle as it is boiling, pour onto the leaves and stir. Leave to brew for three minutes. The ideal receptacle is a ceramic mug or your favourite personal mug. Pour milk into the cup FIRST, followed by the tea, aiming to achieve a colour that is rich and attractive.
  5. Add sugar to taste. Drink at between 60-65 degrees Centigrade to avoid vulgar slurping which results from trying to drink tea at too high a temperature.

Personal chemistry: to gain optimum ambience for enjoyment of tea aim to achieve a seated drinking position in a favoured home spot where quietness and calm will elevate the moment to a special dimension. For best results carry a heavy bag of shopping– of walk the dog – in cold, driving rain for at least half an hour beforehand. This will make the tea taste out of this world.

Recommended ideal reading to accompany The Perfect Cup of Tea: Down and Out in Paris and London by George Orwell.

Dr Andrew Stapley of Loughborough University writes:

  •  Use freshly drawn water that has not previously been boiled. Previously boiled water will have lost some of its dissolved oxygen which is important to bring out the tea flavour.
  • Avoid “hard” water as the minerals it contains gives rise to unpleasant tea scum. If you live in hard water area use softened (filtered) water. For the same reason do not use bottled mineral water.
  • To achieve perfection, we advocate using a tea-pot with loose tea. The pot should be made of ceramic as metal pots can sometimes taint the flavour of the tea. Tea bags are a handy convenience, but they do slow down infusion, and favour infusion of the slower infusing but less desirable higher molecular weight tannins (see below).
  • It is not necessary to use a lot of tea. 2 grammes (a teaspoon) per cup is normally sufficient.
  • Tea infusion needs to be performed at as high a temperature as is possible, and this needs a properly pre-warmed pot. Swilling a small amount of hot water in the pot for a couple of seconds is not enough. Fill at least a quarter of the pot with boiling water and keep it there for half a minute. Then, in quick succession, drain the water from the pot, add the tea and then fill with the other boiled water from the kettle. A better alternative is to pre-warm the pot using a microwave oven! Add 1/4 cup of water to the pot and microwave on full power for a minute. Then drain, and add tea and boiling water from the kettle. Aim to synchronise events such that the kettle water is added immediately after it has boiled, and just after you have drained the water. Taking “the pot to the kettle” will marginally help keep the temperature high.
  • Brew for typically 3 to 4 minutes (depending on the tea). It is a myth that brewing for longer times causes more caffeine to infuse into the tea. Caffeine is a relatively quick infuser and caffeine infusion is largely complete within the first minute. More time is, however, needed for the polyphenolic compounds (tannins) to come out which give the tea is colour and some of its flavour. Infusing for longer times than this, however, introduces high molecular weight tannins which leave a bad aftertaste.
  • Use your favourite cup. Never use polystyrene cups, which result in the tea being too hot to drink straightaway (and will also degrade the milk, see below). Large mugs retain their heat much longer than small cups in addition to providing more tea!
  • Add fresh chilled milk, not UHT milk which contains denatured proteins and tastes bad. Milk should be added before the tea, because denaturation (degradation) of milk proteins is liable to occur if milk encounters temperatures above 75°C. If milk is poured into hot tea, individual drops separate from the bulk of the milk and come into contact with the high temperatures of the tea for enough time for significant denaturation to occur. This is much less likely to happen if hot water is added to the milk. Once full mixing has occurred the temperature should be below 75°C, unless polystyrene cups were used.
  • Lastly add sugar to taste. Both milk and sugar are optional, but they both act to moderate the natural astringency of tea.
  • The perfect temperature to drink tea is between 60°C and 65°C, which should be obtained within a minute if the above guide is used. Higher temperatures than this require the drinker to engage in excessive air – cooling of the tea whilst drinking – or “slurping” in everyday parlance. Leaving a teaspoon in the tea for a few seconds is a very effective cooling alternative.

Tea Leaf Grade Terminology

One of the delightful things about tea is its quirky traditions.

Tea leaves come in all shapes and sizes, but surprisingly, are all within a set of standards and can be described by using various terms that are exclusive to the Tea Trade.

Some of them are quite simple, and others are really quite lengthy, but this document attempts to explain the general terms in use today when assessing the quality and shape of tea leaves.

Tea Leaf Grade Terminology

Choppy – When the tea contains a lot of varying sized leaves.

Fannings – Small particles of tea leaves a grade higher than dust. Used almost exclusively in tea bags.
Flowery – A large leaf, typically plucked in second of third flush, with an abundance of tips
Golden Flowery – The tea contains very young tips or buds (which are usually golden in colour) that were picked early in the season.

Tippy – The tea contains an abundance of tips.

Whole leaf grades

The grades for whole leaf orthodox black tea (in ascending order) are:
OP – Orange Pekoe – Main grade in tea production. Can consist of long wiry leaf without tips.
OP sup – Orange Pekoe Superior – Primarily from Indonesia, tea is much the same as above.
F OP – Flowery Orange Pekoe – High quality tea with a long leaf and few tips, considered second grade
in Assam, Dooars and Bangladesh and first grade in China.
F OP1 – Flowery Orange Pekoe First Grade Leaves – As above but with only the highest quality leaves in the F.O.P classification
GF OP1 – Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe First Grade Leaves – Higher proportion of tip than FOP Top
grade in Milima and Marinyn regions; Uncommon in Assam and Darjeeling.
TGF OP – Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe – Tea with the highest proportion of tip; Main grade in Darjeeling and Assam.
TGF OP1 – Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe – As above, but with only the highest quality leave in the T.G.F.O.P classification.

FTGF OP – Finest Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe – Highest quality grade. Often hand processed and produced at only the best plantations. Roughly one quarter tips. A joke among tea aficionados is that “FTGFOP” stands for “Far Too Good For Ordinary People”.

Broken leaf grades

BT – Broken Tea – Usually a black, open, fleshy leaf, very bulky. Classification used in Sumatra, Sri
Lanka, some parts of Southern India.
BP – Broken Pekoe – Most common broken pekoe grade. From Indonesia. Ceylon, Southern India.
BPS – Broken Pekoe Souchong – Term for broken pekoe in Assam and Darjeeling.
FP – Flowery Pekoe – High quality pekoe. Usually coarser, fleshier broken leaf. from Ceylon and
Southern India, also produced in some parts of Kenya.
BOP – Broken Orange Pekoe – Main broken grade. Prevalent in Ceylon, Southern India, Java and China.
F BOP – Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe – Coarser broken with some tips from Assam, Ceylon, Indonesia, China and Bangladesh. In South America coarser, black broken.
F BOP F – Finest Broken Orange Pekoe Flowery – The finest broken orange pekoe. Higher proportion of tips. Mainly from Ceylon’s “low districts”.
G BOP – Golden Broken Orange Pekoe – Second grade tea, uneven leaves and few tips.
GF BOP1-Golden Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe 1 – As above, but with only the highest quality leaves in the GFBOP classification.

TGF BOP1 – Tippy Golden Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe 1 – High quality leaves with high proportion of tips. Finest broken First Grade Leaves in Darjeeling and some parts of Assam.

Fannings grades

PF – Pekoe Fannings –
OF – Orange Fannings – From Northern India and some parts of Africa and South America.
FOF – Flowery Orange Fannings – Common in Assam, Dooars and Bangladesh. Some leaf sizes come close to the smaller broken grades.
GFOF – Golden Flowery Orange Fannings – Finest grade in Darjeeling for teabag production.
TGFOF – Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Fannings.

BOPF – Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings – Main grade in Ceylon, Indonesia, Southern India, Kenya, Mozambique, Bangladesh and China. Black-leaf tea, few added ingredients, uniform particle size, no tips.


Dust grades

D1 – Dust 1 – From Sri Lanka, Indonesia, China, Africa, South America and Southern India.
PD – Pekoe Dust
PD1 – Pekoe Dust 1 – Mainly produced in India.

Tea Tasting Terminology

The English Language and indeed, the Tasting Room at Northern Tea Merchants has had to contend with finding words to describle flavours of tea for generations. Here is where we are at with it all…!

We all love tea – BUT what words would you use to describe your favourite drink and the appearance of its leaves, both dry and infused? ‘Brown, Wet & Warm’ simply won’t cut the mustard!

Terminology that describes dry Tea Leaves:

BLACK: – A black appearance is desirable, preferably with ‘BLOOM’. This term is used with Orthodox (Large Leaf) manufacture.

BLACKISH: – This is a satisfactory appearance for a small leaf black tea and denotes careful sorting at the factory.

BLOOM: – A sign of good manufacture and sorting (where the reduction of leaf has mainly taken place before firing). A ‘sheen’ which has not been removed by over handling or over sorting.

BOLD: – Particles of leaf which are too large for the particular grade being observed.

BROWN: – A brown appearance with CTC manufacture, which normally reflects too hard handling of the leaf.

CHESTY: – Inferior or damp packing materials cause this taint.

CHOPPY: – Orthodox leaf which has to be cut with a breaker during sorting.

CHUNKY: – A very large broken from Orthodox manufacture.

CLEAN: – Leaf which is free from fibre, dust or any extraneous matter.

CREPY: – A crimped appearance common with the larger grade brokens from orthodox manufacture, such as Broken Orange Pekoe

CURLY: – The leaf appearance of whole leaf grade orthodox teas such as Orange Pekoe – as opposed to ‘WIRY’.

EVEN: – True to the grade and consisting of pieces of leaf quite even in size.

FLAKEY: – Flat, open and often light in texture.

GREY: – Caused by too much abrasion in sorting.

GRAINY: – Describes well made CTC primary grades, particularly Pekoe Dust and Dust 1 Grades

LEAFY: – Orthodox manufacture leaf tending to be on the large or long side.

LIGHT: – A tea light in weight and of poor density. Sometimes ‘FLAKEY’.

MAKE: – Well made (or not) and must be true to the grade.

MUSHY:- A tea which has been packed or stored with a high moisture content.

MUSTY: – A tea affected by mildew.

NEAT: – A grade having good ‘MAKE’ and size

NOSE: – Smell of the dry leaf.

POWDERY: – Fine light dust. No use in leaf tea or tea bags!

RAGGED: – An uneven badly manufactured and graded tea.

STALK & FIBRE: – Should be minimal in primary or top grades, but generally unavoidable in the lower grades of an assorted batch.

TIP: – A sign of fine plucking and apparent in the top grades of Orthodox manufacture.

UNEVEN & MIXED: – Uneven pieces of leaf usually indicative of poor sorting and not true to the particular grade.

WELL TWISTED:- Applicable to Orthodox manufacture. Often referred to as ‘well made’ or ‘rolled’ and used for describing whole leaf grades.

WIRY: – Leaf appearance of a well – twisted, thin leaf Orthodox tea.

Terminology that describes infused tea leaves.

AROMA: – Smell or scent denoting ‘inherent character’, usually at high elevations.

BISCUITY: – A pleasant aroma often found in well – fired Assams.

BRIGHT: – A lively bright appearance. Usually indicates bright liquors.

COPPERY: – A bright leaf which usually indicates a well manufactured tea.

DULL: – Lacks brightness and usually denotes a poor tea. Can be due to faulty manufacture and firing, or a high moisture content.

DARK: – A dark or dull colour which usually indicates poorer leaf.

GREEN: – Caused by under – fermentation, or characteristic of leaf from immature bushes (liquors are often RAWor LIGHT). Can also be caused by poor rolling with Orthodox teas.

MIXED or UNEVEN: – Leaf of varying colours.

TARRY: – A smoky aroma

Terminology describing the flavour of liquored (brewed) tea.

BAGGY: – A taint normally resulting from unlined hessian bags. (Rarer today now tea is shipped in foil lined paper sacks).

BODY: – A liquor having both fullness and strength, as opposed to being ‘THIN’.

BAKEY: – An over – fired liquor. Tea in which too much moisture has been driven off. Can also be described as ‘TOASTY’.

BRIGHT: – Denotes a lively fresh tea with good keeping quality.

BRISK: – The most ‘live’ characteristic. Results from good manufacture.

BURNT: – Extreme over firing. It is unlikely that such over – fired tea would make it as far as the quality end of the market that most readers will inhabit, but often these teas are sold to be used in accountant – designed blends such as very cheap supermarket own – label brands.

CHARACTER: – An attractive taste when describing better high elevation growth, and peculiar to origin

COLOURY: – Indicates useful depth of colour and strength.

COARSE: – Fibre content. Again, coarse teas are usually cheap and nasty. They are also a nightmare to pack due to exceptional bulk density variation. I have also heard these teas described as ‘HAIRY DOGS’.

COMMON: – A very plain, light and thin liquor with no distinct flavour.

CREAM: – A precipitate obtained after cooling. Selling brokers often ‘cream’ Assam teas, which means they allow them to stew until cold (20 minutes infusion!). If the result looks like cream of tomato soup, this means that the tea will stand well in a warehouse. It will also destroy your palate for an hour or two. Creamed teas are assessed by eye, not taste buds!

DRY: – Indicates slight over – firing.

DULL: – Not clear, and lacking any brightness or briskness.

EARTHY: – Normally caused by damp storage. A taste which can at times be climatically inherent in leaf from certain origins.

FLAT: – Unfresh, usually due to age.

FLAVOUR: – A most desirable extension of ‘CHARACTER’, caused by slow growth at high elevations and comparatively rare.

FULL: – A good combination of strength and colour

FRUITY: – Can be due to over – fermentation and/or bacterial infection before firing. An over-ripe taste.

GONE OFF: – Self explanatory. A flat or old tea. Also used to indicate a high moisture content.

GREEN: – An immature, ‘raw’ character. Often due to under-fermentation and sometimes under withering.

HARD: – A very pungent liquor.

HARSH: – A taste generally related to under – withered leaf, and very rough.

HEAVY:- A thick, strong and coloury liquor with limited briskness.

HIGH-FIRED: – Over fired but not ‘BAKEY’, ‘TOASTY’ or ‘BURNT’.

LIGHT: – Lacking strength and any depth of colour.

MATURE: – But not bitter or ‘FLAT’. A positive term that is occasionally applied to Darjeelings, which can actually improve with age.

METALLIC: – A sharp coppery flavour. Can also be described as ‘BRASS SPOON’.

MUDDY: – A dull, opaque liquor.

POINT: – A bright, acidy and penetrating characteristic.

PLAIN: – A liquor which is ‘clean’ but lacking in other desirable characteristics.

PUNGENT: – Astringent with a good combination of briskness, brightness and strength. Often

used to describe good quality North Indian (Assam) teas.

QUALITY: – Refers to cup quality and denotes a combination of the most desirable liquoring qualities.

RASPING: – A very ‘COARSE’ and ‘HARSH’ liquor.

RAW: – A bitter and unpleasant liquor.

SMOKEY: – Often caused by leaks around the dryer heating tubes. When describing Lapsang Souchong tea, however, smokiness is an absolute necessity!

SOFT: – The opposite of ‘BRISK’ and lacking any live characteristic. Caused by inefficient fermentation and/or firing.

STRENGTH: – Substance in the cup

STEWED: – A ‘SOFT’ liquor with an undesirable taste caused by faulty firing at low temperatures and often insufficient air flow. Lacking in ‘POINT’

TAINTS: – Characteristics or tastes which are alien to the tea being tasted, such as diesel or

garlic. Usually due to tea being stored near foreign commodities with strong characteristics of

their own.

THIN: – An insipid, light liquor which lacks any desirable characteristics.

WEEDY: – A grass or hay taste related to under withering. Can also be referred to as ‘WOODY’.

Makes you think, doesn’t it! All this flavour from leaves of the camellia plant! That’s why I love tea so much. I owe much of this document to my father and grandfather, although the contributions and corrections from our three main brokers, Messrs Thompson, Lloyd & Ewart, Van Rees (UK) Ltd and I&M Smith (Pty) Ltd allow me to dare to put it on the web!

What is a Tea Bag?

Tea Bags come in all shapes and sizes nowadays, but this is our take on what a tea bag should be, and the weights of tea that it should contain.

When Tea Bags appeared on the U.K. Market in the 1960’s, they were considered by many to be a quaint American Product. The advertising slogan of the time told us “No tea leaves when you drink – No tea leaves in the sink.” No truer statement was ever made about tea bags. Since then, however, advertising of them has contained much balderdash. In Dr. J.A.C. Brown’s book “Techniques of Persuasion”, he states “many advertisers are willing to admit that their work consists largely in the creation of imaginary differences between products.” Whilst the quality of tea put into tea bags is undoubtedly the most important point to consider when purchasing them, advertisers have striven to create “imaginary differences” between them to influence us to buy a particular brand in favour of the others.

The techniques of persuasion they have used are something like this…

1. Bigger bags “give the tea more room to move about thus creating a faster brewing time” was the claim. Is this so? Do you notice the difference?

2. Perforations. “Let the flavour flood out”. Do they really? Have you detected flavour flooding out?

3. Round Tea Bags. Dr. Brown also states in “Techniques of Persuasion”, “Increasing standardisation leads to increasing sameness between products; and the greater the similarity the smaller part does reason play in the choice of one brand and another”. Size isn’t important – neither is shape!

4. Pyramid Tea Bags “allow the tea to brew more quickly.” The same sort of claim was made for bigger bags when they were first introduced.

5. What next? Surely not another shape. Wouldn’t it be nice if advertisers credited us with enough intelligence and focused on the one thing that matters – the quality of the Tea! If you look around the brands on the supermarket shelves, it will become apparent to you that whilst many of the popular and low quality brands are following the “me – too” shape path, the top quality brands are remaining faithful to the traditional shape.

Northern Tea Merchants tea bags are traditional shape, contain top quality tea and are competitively priced.

Weights

Tea Bags can be square, oblong, round, pyramid or diamond shape, and can contain a bewildering range of weights and qualities of Tea. What shape they are is of little consequence – the quality and weight of tea they contain is.

What is a 2 cup Tea Bag?

Most of us use this size bag in our own homes. The following pack sizes usually contain 2 cup Tea Bags…

40 Tea Bags (125g). Each Tea Bag contains 3.125g of Tea.

80 Tea Bags (250g). Each Tea Bag contains 3.125g of Tea.

160 Tea Bags (500g). Each Tea Bag contains 3.125g of Tea.

240 Tea Bags (750g). Each Tea Bag contains 3.125g of Tea.

800 Tea Bags (2.5kg) Each Tea Bag contains 3.125g of Tea.

1100 Tea Bags (3kg). Each Tea Bag contains 2.72g of Tea.

What is a 1 cup Tea Bag?

The following pack sizes usually contain 1 cup Tea Bags…

110 Tea Bags (250g). Each Tea Bag contains 2.27g of Tea

440 Tea Bags (1kg). Each Tea Bag contains 2.27g of Tea

1100 Tea Bags (2.5kg). Each Tea Bag contains 2.27g of Tea

120 Tea Bags (250g). Each Tea Bag contains 2.09g of Tea

125 Tag/String Tea Bags (250g). Each Tea Bag contains 2g of Tea

What is a 2 pint Tea Bag?

Typical Pack sizes are…

150 Tea Bags (1.5kg). Each Tea Bag contains 10g of Tea.

200 Tea Bags (2kg). Each Tea Bag contains 10g of Tea.

What is a 4 pint Tea Bag?

Typical pack sizes are…

82 Tea Bags (1.5kg). Each Tea Bag contains 18.3g of Tea.

110 Tea Bags (2kg). Each TeaBag contains 18.2g of Tea.

200 Tea Bags (3.6kg). Each Tea Bag contains 18g of Tea.

When comparing two different pack sizes of a similar quality, the best way to assess their value for money is to calculate their prices per kg. Members of our Sales Office Staff will be pleased to send you samples and a competitive quotation for your requirements.

Herbal / Chai Tea Recipes

1. Herbal Peace Chai:

Ingredients:

Roman Chamomile Flowers – Anthemis nobilis

Mint – Mentha

Rose petals – Rosa glauca

Cinnamon – Cinnamomum verum

Mary gold – Calendula

Bay Leaves – Cinnamomum tejpata

Ginger – Zingiber officinale

Holy Basil (Tulsi) – Ocimum tenuiflorum

This is a gentle and calming blend; a chance for reflection while providing an opportunity to imagine a peaceful world. Take the stress out of life for a while. This is a wonderful drink for mediation and quiet moments.

2. Herbal Winter Spice Chai:

Ingredients:

Cinnamon – Cinnamomum verum

Lemon Peels – Citrus × limon

Green Cardamom – EleSaria

Liquorice root – Glycyrrhiza glabra

Ginger – Zingiber officinale

Cloves – Syzygium aromaticum

Nutmeg – Myristica

Holy Basil (Tulsi) – Ocimum tenuiflorum

Pepper – Piper nigrum

A warming winter blend and a great stress reducer, this tea also has many cleansing and antibacterial health benefits. This tea also protects against Heart disease, improves Colon Health and also controls Blood Sugar levels.

3. Herbal Dream Chai:

Ingredients:

Mint – Mentha 

Roman Chamomile Flowers – Anthemis nobilis

Rose petals – Rosa glauca

Bay Leaves – Cinnamomum tejpata

Coriander – Coriandrum sativum

Cumin Seeds – Cuminum cyminum

Ginger – Zingiber officinale

This infusion blend is based on an ancient said to evoke powerful and colourful dreams. It is specially blended for the dreamer, summoning vivid and easily recalled dreams. It is a light, minty yet, rich flavour. It is especially enjoyable after a rich or large dinner.

4. Herbal Evening Repose Chai:

Ingredients:

Rose petals – Rosa glauca

Lemon Peels – Citrus × limon

Roman Chamomile Flowers – Anthemis nobilis

Mint – Mentha

Turmeric – Curcuma longa

Enjoy the harmony and dance of light across the twilight sky as you savour the tranquility in our Evening repose. It is a perfect toast to the moon. This is a beautiful infusion blend with a robust flavour of flowers & mint.

5. Herbal Fairy Tale Chai:

Ingredients :

Cloves – Syzygium aromaticum

Lemon Peels – Citrus × limon

Green Cardamom – EleSaria

Black Cardamom – Amomum

Cardamom Grains – EleSaria

Roman Chamomile Flowers – Anthemis nobilis

Rooibos -­‐ Aspalathus linearis

Turmeric – Curcuma longa

Ginger – Zingiber officinale

Cinnamon – Cinnamomum verum

Pepper – Piper nigrum

Coriander – Coriandrum sativum

Nutmeg – Myristica

Liquorice root – Glycyrrhiza glabra

Bay Leaves – Cinnamomum tejpata

Ginger – Zingiber officinale

Rose petals – Rosa glauca

Mary gold -­‐ Calendula

Holy Basil (Tulsi) – Ocimum tenuiflorum

Mint – Mentha

Lemon Peels – Citrus × limon

Coconut – Cocos nucifera

Apple – Malus domestica

This is a delicious drink for children and adults. A delightful and inspiring infusion blend full of flowers & fairy magic, it is perfect for bed time stories.

6. Herbal Forest Chai:

Ingredients:

Ginger – Zingiber officinale

Liquorice root – Glycyrrhiza glabra

Cinnamon – Cinnamomum verum

Lemon Peels – Citrus × limon

Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare

Formerly known as Lung and Balancer just for men! A tasty and healthy decoction created for the general health of men. This tea has many Antioxidant and Antibiotic properties. This tea is beneficial in fighting against many types of cancer and also protects against Rheumatoid Arthritis

7. Herbal Calming Chai:

Ingredients:

Roman Chamomile – Anthemis nobilis – 50%

Lemon Peels –

Citrus × limon – 20%

Bay Leaves – Cinnamomum tejpata – 20%

Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare – 10%

Mary gold – Calendula – 10%

Calming tea is safe and time-­tested Ayurvedic formula designed to ease stress and tension, encouraging

a state of relaxed alertness without drowsiness. This healing formula contains Chamomile. Known for its

mild, apple-­‐like flavour, Chamomile has been used as a calming agent for centuries and is widely

regarded for the way in which it helps compose the mind and cool the body. Lemon peels and Bay

leaves are used in this formula, as it is a popular antispasmodic and mild anti ‐ irritant. We have also

included Marie Gold Flowers which help cool the body, and Fennel Seed, which aids in calming the

muscles, improving digestion and calming flatulence and stomach trouble. Calming tea will help you

stay calm throughout the day and is also great for children.

8. Herbal Blood Cleanser Chai:

Ingredients:

Ginger – Zingiber officinale – 40%

Pepper – Piper nigrum – 10%

Liquorice root – Glycyrrhiza glabra – 18%

Cloves – Syzygium aromaticum – 12%

Nutmeg – Myristica – 10%

Turmeric – Curcuma longa – 10%

This tea is used as a stomach tonic and blood purifier. It is beneficial for use in connection with

symptoms associated with a variety of health conditions due to its purported antioxidant, anti – tumour, anti‐inflammatory, and antibacterial effects.

9. Herbal Fasting Chai:

Ingredients:

Cloves – Syzygium aromaticum

Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare

Cinnamon – Cinnamomum verum

Pepper – Piper nigrum

Turmeric – Curcuma longa

Liquorice root – Glycyrrhiza glabra

Bay Leaves – Cinnamomum

tejpata

This tea does not only taste good, it also contains many health benefits such as: Anti-­CloXng and Anti-Microbial actions, Blood Sugar Control, it boosts Brain Function, it’s Calcium and Fiber protect against Heart Disease and improve Colon Health, among other things.

10. Herbal African Red bush Peach Chai:

Ingredients:

Rooibos -­‐ Aspalathus linearis – 60%

Ginger – Zingiber officinale – 10%

Green Cardamom – EleSaria – 20%

Black Cardamom – Amomum – 10%

This tea has a number of health benefits, such as improving digestion and stimulating the metabolism.

This tea also cleanses kidneys and bladder, stimulates appetite, cures bad breath and can be used as a

remedy to reduce tendency of infection. It also improves circulation to the lungs and thus considered

good for asthma and bronchitis.

11. Herbal Punch Chai:

Ingredients:

Black Cardamom – Amomum

Pepper – Piper nigrum

Turmeric – Curcuma longa

This tea is effective in improving the digestion by increasing the secretion of hydrochloric acid. It also reduces the formation of intestinal gas; it also has significant antioxidants and antibacterial properties,

which are important for fighting disease and maintaining overall good health. This tea also helps to

alleviate constipation.

12. Herbal Tulsi Chai:

Ingredients:

Holy Basil (Tulsi) – Ocimum tenuiflorum

Coriander – Coriandrum sativum

Black Cardamom – Amomum

Nutmeg – Myristica

Ginger – Zingiber officinale

This tea is a very good source of Vitamin A due to its high content of Basil. This tea also provides

protection at a cellular level due to is high content of flavonoids. Also, this tea provides protection

against unwanted bacterial growth. This tea is very beneficial for people with rheumatoid arthritis or

inflammatory bowel conditions as it provides symptomatic relief.

13. Herbal Breath Deep Chai:

Ingredients:

Holy Basil (Tulsi) – Ocimum tenuiflorum

Ginger – Zingiber officinale

Bay Leaves – Cinnamomum

tejpata

Honey Bush – Cyclopia spp

Cumin Seeds – Cuminum cyminum

This tea can be used to treat a number of health problems like vomiting, coughing and diarrhoea. It is

also used in traditional medicines as a treatment for

inflammatory joint diseases such as arthritis,

rheumatism and a variety of other conditions.

14. Herbal Foxtrot Chai:

Ingredients:

Rooibos -­‐ Aspalathus linearis – 50%

Mint – Mentha – 10%

Roman Chamomile – Anthemis nobilis – 30%

Bay Leaves – Cinnamomum tejpata– 10%

This tea helps in reducing the damage done by free radicals. It also helps to relieve stomach ulcers,

nausea, constipation and heartburn. This tea has a high content of fluoride, calcium and manganese. It

is well known for its ability to sooth the digestive tract and reduces the severity and length of stomach

aches. In addition, it eases the discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome, and even slows the

growth of many of the most harmful bacteria and fungi.

15. Masala Chai:

Ingredients:

Black Tea – Camellia Sinensis

Cinnamon – Cinnamomum verum

Ginger – Zingiber officinale

Cloves – Syzygium aromaticum

Bay Leaves – Cinnamomum tejpata

Green Cardamom – EleSaria

This tea aids in prevention of indigestion and abdominal cramping. It also alleviates high blood pressure

and stimulates circulation of blood throughout the body. This tea is used to prevent as well as treat

morning sickness and it also relaxes the stomach.

16. Kashmiri Chai:

Ingredients:

Black Tea – Camellia Sinensis

Cinnamon – Cinnamomum verum

Almond – Prunus dulcis

Cloves – Syzygium aromaticum

Green Cardamom (grains & leaves)

Rose petals – Rosa glauca

Bay Leaves – Cinnamomum tejpata

This tea is especially useful in reducing LDL Cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of heart disease.

This tea is also useful in protecting the muscles around the heart. As well as being a protein

powerhouse, this tea also helps in reducing gallstones. Also, the content of almonds in this tea will

ensure that you get a healthier diet with every cup of tea.

Earl Grey Tea Loaf Recipe

This delicious fruit loaf is really simple to make, goes perfectly with a cup of tea, and can be made using our Earl Grey Tea Bags or Loose Leaf Tea.

Ingredients: 8oz mixed fruit (sultanas, raisins, currants,candied peel)

  • 1 tea cup of strong Earl Grey Tea
  • 4oz soft light or dark brown sugar
  • 8oz Self Raising Flour
  • 1 large egg
  • 1½oz. butter
  • 1 tablespoon marmalade
  • ½ teaspoon mixed spice
  1. Leave the fruit soaking overnight in the tea
  2. Put all the ingredients in a bowl and mix well
  3. Pour into lined 2lb loaf tin and bake on Gas Mark 3 for 1¾ hours

Our Tea Manufacturing Processes

1.Withering/ Wilting:The tea leaves will begin to wilt soon after picking, with a gradual onset of enzymatic oxidation.Wilting is used to remove excess water from the leaves and allows a very slight amount of oxidation. The leaves can be either put under the sun or left in a cool breezy room to pull moisture out from the leaves. The leaves sometimes lose more than a quarter of their weight in water during wilting. The process is also important in promoting the breakdown of leaf proteins into free amino acid and increases the availability of freed caffeine both of which changes the taste of the tea.

2.Bruising: In order to promote and quicken oxidation, the leaves may be bruised by shaking and tossing in a bamboo tray, tumbling in baskets or by being kneaded or rolled-over by heavy wheels. The bruising breaks down the structures within and outside of the leaf cells and allows from the commingling of oxidative enzymes with various substrates, which allows for the beginning of oxidation. This also releases some of the leaf juices, which may aid in oxidation and change the taste profile of the tea.

3.Oxidation/Fermentation: For teas that require oxidation, the leaves are left on their own in a climate-controlled room where they turn progressively darker. This is accompanied by agitation in some cases. In this process the chlorophyll in the leaves is enzymatically broken down, and its tannins are released or transformed. This process is sometimes referred to as “fermentation” in the tea industry. The tea producer may choose when the oxidation should be stopped, which depends on the desired qualities in the final tea as well as the weather conditions (heat and humidity). For light oolong teas this may be anywhere from 5-40% oxidation, in darker oolong teas 60-70%, and in black teas 100% oxidation. Oxidation is highly important in the formation of many tast and aroma compounds, which give a tea its liquor colour, strength, and briskness. Depending on the type of tea desired, under or over-oxidation/fermentation can result in grassy flavours, or overly thick winey flavours.

4.Fixation / Kill-green: Kill-green or shāqīng (殺青) is done to stop the tea leaf oxidation at a desired level. This process is accomplished by moderately heating tea leaves, thus deactivating their oxidative enzymes and removing unwanted scents in the leaves, without damaging the flavour of the tea. Traditionally, the tea leaves are panned in a wok or steamed, but with advancements in technology, kill-green is sometimes done by baking or “panning” in a rolling drum. In some white teas and some black teas such as CTC blacks, kill-green is done simultaneously with drying.

5.Sweltering / Yellowing: Unique to yellow teas, warm and damp tea leaves from after kill-green are allowed to be lightly heated in a closed container, which causes the previously green leaves to yellow. The resulting leaves produce a beverage that has a distinctive yellowish-green hue due to transformations of the leaf chlorophyll. Through being sweltered for 6–8 hours at close to human body temperatures, the amino acids and polyphenols in the processed tea leaves undergo chemical changes to give this tea its distinct briskness and mellow taste.

6.Rolling / Shaping: The damp tea leaves are then rolled to be formed into wrinkled strips, by hand or using a rolling machine which causes the tea to wrap around itself. This rolling action also causes some of the sap, essential oils, and juices inside the leaves to ooze out, which further enhances the taste of the tea. The strips of tea can then be formed into other shapes, such as being rolled into spirals, kneaded and rolled into pellets, or tied into balls, cones and other elaborate shapes. In many type of oolong, the rolled strips of tea leaf are then rolled to spheres or half spheres and is typically done by placing the damp leaves in large cloth bags, which are then kneaded by hand or machine in a specific manner.

7.Drying: Drying is done to “finish” the tea for sale. This can be done in a myriad of ways including panning, sunning, air drying, or baking. However, baking is usually the most common. Great care must be taken to not over-cook the leaves. The drying of the produced tea is responsible for many new flavour compounds particularly important in green teas.

8.Aging / Curing: While not always required, some teas required additional aging, secondary-fermentation, or baking to reach their drinking potential. For instance, a green tea Pu Erh, prior to curing into a post-fermented tea, is often bitter and harsh in taste, but becomes sweet and mellow through fermentation by age or dampness. As well, oolong can benefit from aging if fired over charcoal. Flavoured teas are manufactured in this stage by spraying the tea with aromas and flavours or by storing them with their flavourants.
Without careful moisture and temperature control during its manufacture and life thereafter, fungi will grow on tea. This form of fungus causes real fermentation that will contaminate the tea and may render the tea unfit for consumption.

Tea and Flouride

Tea is widely known as being a healthy drink. It is also known to contain flouride, and the stance taken by the UK trade on the flouride content of tea is set out in this document.

FLUORIDE

Position Statement – July 2013

Please refer to UKTC policy statement for use

Summary

Campaigning groups have expressed concern that levels of fluoride in fluoridated water and those naturally present in tea may pose dangers to human health. However, expert bodies and independent reviews 1,2 of the available scientific evidence have not demonstrated any positive link between enhanced levels of fluoride in the diet and an increase in cancer mortality. Chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride can lead to skeletal fluorosis.

A UKTC review of the data has shown that there is no reason for people who consume normal quantities of tea to be concerned about the fluoride content, or to change their tea drinking habits.

 

Fluoridated Drinking Water

Fluoride is not essential to human health but it has a role in bone mineralisation as it forms calcium fluoroapatite in teeth and bone and can protect against dental caries 3,4. Due to fluoride’s role in the prevention of dental caries, some water supplies are fluoridated to a level of 1 mg/l3. Fluoridation of public water supplies has always provoked a level of debate about its effectiveness and the potential for health risks. The primary focus of the risk argument remains enhanced rates of bone cancer, with dental and skeletal fluorosis being secondary concerns. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, a body of the World Health Organisation, has twice critically reviewed all the scientific studies on the subject in 1982 and 1987 1,2. The Agency’s conclusion was that “none of the studies provide any evidence that an increased level of fluoride in water was associated with an increase in cancer mortality”. Furthermore, a study from the Food and Drug Administration’s National Centre for Toxicological Research 5 stated that bone cancer risk was unrelated to water fluoridation. Additionally the US Centre for Disease Control Public Health Service Report 6 noted that the National Cancer Institute identified no trends in cancer that could be attributed to the introduction of fluoride into drinking water.

Fluoride in tea

The tea plant naturally accumulates fluoride from the soil and the Food Standards Agency’s 1997 Total Diet Study 7 found that in the UK the estimated average population exposure for fluoride is 1.2mg/day, this value being broadly in line with the 1.8 mg/day found in 1978 – 80. The study also showed that fluoride intake is heavily influenced by tea consumption with beveragesaccounting for 1mg/day, or 85% of the total fluoride intake, excluding any contribution from fluoride in the water used to make the tea. When the water is from a fluoridated supply this approximately doubles the fluoride intake for consumers drinking 4 to 5 cups of tea per day.

These values are in line with those found in earlier studies 8.9, which showed that the average fluoride content for tea made with fluoridated water is 2.2mg/litre. Consequently a litre of tea (4 to 5 cups) prepared with fluoridated water will provide a daily fluoride intake of 2.2mg or 0.03mg/kg body weight (for a 70kg adult). Also to note, EFSA set an upper limit with reference to fluoride in 2006, which is 0.12 mg/kg body weight per day. This is equivalent to an Upper Level of 5mg a day in children aged 9 – 14 years and 7 mg a day for those people 15 years and older, including pregnant and lactating women.

Fluorosis

Dental fluorosis is caused by chronic ingestion of high levels of fluoride when teeth are being formed, i.e. in young children, with the risk becoming negligible by the age of eight 12. Dental fluorosis is typically seen as whitish patches on affected teeth and is associated with a daily fluoride intake of 0.1mg/kg body weight 13. It does not impact on the health of the teeth and, indeed, reduces the suspectibility of the enamel to dental decay. The only concern is a deleterious cosmetic effect in severe cases.

Typical tea consumption for younger children is 0 to 2.5 cups per day. 8 This results in a fluoride intake of 0.04mg/kg, i.e. well below the level of concern, particularly when most of the tea drunk by this age group is heavily diluted with milk and so actually contains a lower level of fluoride.

Skeletal fluorosis is caused by chronic exposure to very high levels of fluoride. The US Institute of Medicine 12 reported that: “most epidemiological research has indicated that an intake of at least 10mg per day for 10 or more years is needed to produce clinical signs of the milder forms of the condition”. The Institute of Medicine further noted that skeletal fluorosis was not seen in the US where water supplies contained up to 20mg/l fluoride. Therefore tea, at 2.2mg/l, would not be expected to cause a problem.

Safety Assessment of tea consumption

Analyses of leaf tea and instant tea powders show that the fluoride levels in tea leaves and tea powder lie in the range of 100 – 500 mg/kg, although values for instant tea powders can be significantly higher (up to 2300 mg/kg). However, when the ready – to – drink versions of these products are tested, the fluoride levels are very low for ice tea products (< 1 mg/kg) and low to medium for instant tea products (0.5 – 3.6 mg/kg).

14 Scientific publications on the safety of fluoride tend to provide data in the form of maximum tolerable daily intakes, Daily Recommended Intakes (DRI), or Upper Limits (UL). In the US, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) fixed the maximum tolerable intake of fluoride for adults (including children from 9 years upwards, and pregnant and lactating women) at 10mg/day, which is consistent with the view of the US Institute of Medicine as referred to above. The Daily Recommended Intake as set by NAS is 4 – 5 mg/day.

In Europe, the European Food Safety Authority’s opinion paper on fluoride 15 states that the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Fluoride has been agreed at 0.12 mg/kg body weight/day, which for an average European adult is equivalent to 7mg/day.

If it is assumed that the average fluoride content for tea made with fluoridated water is 2.2mg/l then it can be assumed that at the highest 95th percentile consumption of tea, a level of 3.3mg fluoride could be consumed each day significantly below the figure set by EFSA.

On the basis of samples tested, normal tea consumption leads to a maximum intake of 3.3 mg of fluoride per day, which is far below the maximum tolerable intake limits described above.

Therefore, normal tea drinking within a wide spectrum of intake does not represent a public health concern in relation to fluorosis.Accordingly, there is no reason for people who consume normal quantities of tea to change their tea drinking habits.